Types of congenital heart disease:

There are many distinct main types of congenital heart disease, and the different types of congenital heart disease are categorized into two categories in order to better understand the problems they may face.  Baby. They include:

Non-cyanotic congenital heart disease

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What is non-cyanotic heart disease?

Congenital heart defects mean that parts of the heart have not formed properly. They occur very early in pregnancy. These defects can include 'holes' in the septums within the heart, or missing or deformed portions of the heart. There are about 35 known types of congenital heart defects. They range from simple to complex

About 1 in 100 children each year are born with a heart defect, and most congenital heart defects have no known cause. If someone in your family has the defect, your child is more likely to have it. The risk increases from about 1 in 100 children to about 3 out of 100

Congenital heart defects are more common in people with certain syndromes, such as Down syndrome or other syndromes, that affect a number of organs.

Most importantly, in most cases, there is no identifiable cause for heart defects to occur

Heart diseases are often classified into two groups: cyanotic (with a blue tint) and non-cyanotic (without a blue tint).

Cyanosis is the change in the color of the lips, gums and skin to a blue color

Here we will talk about non-cyanotic (without blue) heart disease.

What happens in the body / How does non-cyanotic heart disease occur?

Non-cyanotic heart conditions (without blue color):

  • Shifting blood in the heart from left to right, as in the cases of

  • Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

  • Atrial septal defect (ASD)

  • Ventricular septal defect (VSD)

  • atrioventricular canal  (AVSD)

These defects cause too much blood to pass through the lungs, allowing oxygen-rich (red) blood that must travel to the body to recirculate through the lungs, causing increased pressure and pressure in the lungs

Obstructive heart disease:

  • Pulmonary valve stenosis

  • Aortic valve stenosis

  • Stenosis of the isthmus of the aorta (CoAo)

These defects in the blood vessels cause less than the appropriate amount of blood to travel to the body or lungs to meet their needs

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What are the signs and symptoms of cyanotic heart disease?

Symptoms can be very subtle, or very severe  Which leads to serious illness. Some defects may appear later

There are some defects that may go away on their own with age, such as the ductus arteriosus and some types of atrial septal defects

Symptoms may include:

  • shortness of breath

  • cough

  • perspiration (sweating)

  • exhaustion

  • Frequent respiratory infections

  • heart murmur (an extra heart sound)

  • Tachycardia (rapid heartbeat)

  • quick breath

  • Poor growth and development (from increased energy expended on breathing)

Rarely, the untreated defect may cause mild cyanosis (in cases of right heart failure)

How is cyanotic heart disease diagnosed?

Doctors can sometimes diagnose a heart defect even before the baby is born, using a fetal echocardiogram, which provides an image of the fetus's heart. However, defects are usually identified days or even months after birth, when symptoms become apparent

To diagnose a heart defect after birth, a cardiologist usually takes the following:

  • Pathological history and clinical examination of the newborn

  • Chest X-ray: A chest X-ray will give the doctor information about your child's lungs, as well as the size, shape, and position of the heart

  • Electrocardiogram showing  ECG heart rhythm 

  • Echocardiogram: An echocardiogram shows the structure of the heart and how well it is working. An echocardiogram is very similar to the ultrasound that a pregnant woman may undergo to measure the progress of her baby during pregnancy

A test called a cardiac catheterization may also be done. This is a test in which catheters or tiny tubes are inserted into the groin at the top of the leg and passed through the blood vessels to the heart. The dye is used to show blood flow and the size and shape of the blood vessels and chambers in the heart. Pressures and oxygen levels can also be measured

How is cyanotic heart disease treated?

Children with congenital heart problems are treated by pediatric cardiologists. These doctors diagnose heart defects and help manage children before and after the surgical repair of a heart problem

Specialists who surgically correct heart problems in the operating room are known as pediatric cardiovascular surgeons or cardiothoracic surgeons.

Treatment depends on which part of the heart is affected. Some children will not need treatment if the effect on blood flow is slight, while others will need medication or intervention such as cardiac catheterization or surgery. Most heart defects can be managed successfully.

Some defects are not immediately treated, but can wait until the child is older. And some defects are treated in stages.

Warning: Heart defects can be managed  well enough to enable the child to live a good lifestyle.

With advances in technology and our understanding of heart defects, the outlook for most children is positive. The risk of serious side effects and complications from treatment is much lower than it used to be. Most children will reach adulthood. Children with mild cases may live completely normal lives. Children with more complex cases usually face more challenges

When should I call my doctor or seek medical attention?

Please use the medicines as prescribed according to your child's cardiologist, if you notice that your child has rapid breathing, tiredness, tightness or other symptoms as mentioned before that are getting worse and not improving, please contact your doctor or go to the emergency department immediately